The Impact of CRISPR-Cas System on Antiviral Therapy

Hadi Bayat, Fatemeh Naderi, Amjad Hayat Khan, Arash Memarnejadian, Azam Rahimpour

Adv Pharm Bull. 2018 Nov; 8(4): 591–597. doi: 10.15171/apb.2018.067.

Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-associated protein nuclease (Cas) is identified as an adaptive immune system in archaea and bacteria. Type II of this system, CRISPR-Cas9, is the most versatile form that has enabled facile and efficient targeted genome editing. Viral infections have serious impacts on global health and conventional antiviral therapies have not yielded a successful solution hitherto. The CRISPR-Cas9 system represents a promising tool for eliminating viral infections. In this review, we highlight 1) the recent progress of CRISPR-Cas technology in decoding and diagnosis of viral outbreaks, 2) its applications to eliminate viral infections in both pre-integration and provirus stages, and 3) various delivery systems that are employed to introduce the platform into target cells.

Keywords: CRISPR-Cas, Antiviral therapy, Genome editing, Latent viruses, Delivery system